Research Publications


Shem, K., Wong, J., & Dirlikov, B. (2020). Effective self-stretching of carpal ligament for the treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome: A double-blinded randomized controlled study. Journal of Hand Therapy, 0(0). 

Elliott, C., & Shem, K. (2020). Prevention of Urologic Morbidity in Progressive Neurologic Patients (pp. 179–185).

Pasipanodya, E. C., & Shem, K. (2020). Provision of care through telemedicine during a natural disaster: a case study. Spinal Cord Series and Cases, 6(1), 1–5.

Pasipanodya, E., Dirlikov, B., Castillo, K., & Shem, K. (in press). Cognitive Profiles among Individuals with Spinal Cord Injuries: Predictors and Relations with Psychological Well-being. Archives Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation.


Shem, K., Wong, J., Dirlikov, B., & Castillo, K. (2019). Pharyngeal Dysphagia in Individuals With Cervical Spinal Cord Injury: A Prospective Observational Cohort Study. Topics in Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation, 25(4), 322–330.​

Ehsanian, R., Haefeli, J., Quach, N., Kosarchuk, J., Torres, D., Stuck, E. D., Endo, J., Crew, J. D., Dirlikov, B., Bresnahan, J. C., Beattie, M. S., Ferguson, A. R., McKenna, S. L. (2019). Exploration of surgical blood pressure management and expected motor recovery in individuals with traumatic spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord, 1-10. 

Quach, N., Do, J., Dirlikov, B., Ehsanian, R., Pasipanodya, E. C., Ali, A., & Duong, T. (2019). The Prognosis of Axial vs. Extra-axial Lesions on Functional Status after Traumatic Brain Injury. Frontiers in Neurology, 10.​

Elliott, C. S., Stoffel, J. T., Myers, J. B., Lenherr, S. M., Welk, B., Elliott, S. P., & Shem, K. (2019). Validation Of Upper Extremity Motor Function As A Key Predictor Of Bladder Management After Spinal Cord Injury. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 100(10), 1939-1944.

Dirlikov, B.*, Lavoie, S.*, & Shem, K. (2019). Correlation between thyroid function, testosterone levels, and depressive symptoms in females with spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord Series and Cases, 5(1), 61. 
*these authors contributed equally.

Elliott, C. S., Zlatev, D., Crew, J., & Shem, K. (2019). Do appreciable changes in the upper extremity motor capability to perform clean intermittent catheterization come about with time after traumatic spinal cord injury? Neurourology and Urodynamics, 38(3), 975–980.​​ 

Quach, N.*, Ehsanian, R.*, Dirlikov, B., Sechrist, S., Mohole, J., McKenna, S., Isaac, I., &   Duong, T. (2019). Burden of Care Implications and Association  of ICH with Extremely Severe PTA after TBI: A 5- Year Retrospective Longitudinal Study. Frontiers in Neurology-Neurorehabilitation. 
*these authors contributed equally.​


Ehsanian, R., Timmerman, M. A., Wright, J. M., McKenna, S., Dirlikov, B., & Crew, J. (2018). Venous Thromboembolism is Associated with Lack of Vitamin D Supplementation in Patients with Spinal Cord Injury and Low Vitamin D Levels. PM&R.

Zakrasek, E. C., Yurkiewicz, S. M., Dirlikov, B., Pence, B. T., & Crew, J. D. (2018). Use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to prevent heterotopic ossification after spinal cord injury: a retrospective chart review. Spinal Cord.

Perkins, A., Braunling-McMorrow, D., Doherty, D., Dirlikov, B., & Altman, I. (2018). Neuro-Net and the Seamless Future for Brain and Spinal Cord Injury. Brain Injury Professional.

Sechrist, S., Lavoie, S., Khong, C.-M., Dirlikov, B., & Shem, K. (2018). Telemedicine using an iPad in the spinal cord injury population: a utility and patient satisfaction study. Spinal Cord Series and Cases, 4(1), 71.

Elliott, C. S., Dallas, K. B., Zlatev, D., Comiter, C. V., Crew, J., & Shem, K. (2018). Volitional Voiding of the Bladder Following Spinal Cord Injury: Validation of Bilateral Lower Extremity Motor Function as a Key Predictor. The Journal of Urology. DOI:10.1016/j.juro.2018.02.064

Shem, K., Barncord, S., Flavin, K., & Mohan, M. (2018). Adverse cognitive effect of gabapentin in individuals with spinal cord injury: preliminary findings. Spinal Cord Series and Cases, 4(1), 9. DOI:10.1038/s41394-018-0038-y 


Elliot C, Shem K. (2017). Volitional Voiding After Spinal Cord Injury—Who Will and Who Will Not.  Current Bladder Dysfunction Reports 2017. 12 (4): 337–342. DOI:10.1007/s11884-017-0448-x

Zakrasek, E. C., Nielson, J. L., Kosarchuk, J. J., Crew, J. D., Ferguson, A. R., & McKenna, S. L. (2017). Pulmonary outcomes following specialized respiratory management for acute cervical spinal cord injury: a retrospective analysis. Spinal Cord55(6), 559–565. PMID: 28220822

Shem, K., Sechrist, S. J., Loomis, E., & Isaac, L. (2017). SCiPad: Effective Implementation of Telemedicine Using iPads with Individuals with Spinal Cord Injuries, a Case Series. Frontiers in Medicine4, 58. PMID: 28611986

Zlatev, D. V., Shem, K., & Elliott, C. S. (2017). Predictors of long-term bladder management in spinal cord injury patients-Upper extremity function may matter most. Neurourology and UrodynamicsPMID: 29044679

Lavoie, S., Sechrist, S., Quach, N., Ehsanian, R., Duong, T., Gotlib, I. H., & Isaac, L. (2017). Depression in Men and Women One Year Following Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI): A TBI Model Systems Study. Frontiers in Psychology8PMCID: PMC5418333

Kolakowsky-Hayner, S. A., Bellon, K., Toda, K., Bushnik, T., Wright, J., Isaac, L., & Englander, J. (2017). A randomized control trial of walking to ameliorate brain injury fatigue: a NIDRR TBI model system centre-based study. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation27(7), 1002–1018. PMID: 27733079


Shem, K., Karasik, D., Carufel, P., Kao, M.-C., & Zheng, P. (2016). Seated Tai Chi to alleviate pain and improve quality of life in individuals with spinal cord disorder. The Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine39(3), 353–358. PMID: 26914968

Zlatev, D. V., Shem, K., & Elliott, C. S. (2016). How many spinal cord injury patients can catheterize their own bladder? The epidemiology of upper extremity function as it affects bladder management. Spinal Cord, 54(4), 287–291. PMID: 26782841


Bellon, K., Kolakowsky-Hayner, S., Wright, J., Huie, H., Toda, K., Bushnik, T., & Englander, J. (2015). A home-based walking study to ameliorate perceived stress and depressive symptoms in people with a traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury29(3), 313–319. . PMID: 25356799


Perrin, P. B., Krch, D., Sutter, M., Snipes, D. J., Arango-Lasprilla, J. C., Kolakowsky-Hayner, S. A., Wright, J. Lequerica, A. (2014). Racial/ethnic disparities in mental health over the first 2 years after traumatic brain injury: a model systems study. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 95(12), 2288–2295. PMID: 25128715

Lequerica, A., Chiaravalloti, N., Cantor, J., Dijkers, M., Wright, J., Kolakowsky-Hayner, S. A., Bushnick, T., Hammond, F., Bell, K. (2014). The factor structure of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index in persons with traumatic brain injury. A NIDRR TBI model systems module studyNeuroRehabilitation35(3), 485–492. PMID: 25260230


Corrigan, J. D., Kolakowsky-Hayner, S., Wright, J., Bellon, K., & Carufel, P. (2013). The Satisfaction With Life Scale. The Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 28(6), 489–491.  PMID: 24189288

Kolakowsky-Hayner, S. A., Wright, J., Englander, J., Duong, T., & Ladley-O’Brien, S. (2013). Impact of late post-traumatic seizures on physical health and functioning for individuals with brain injury within the community. Brain Injury27(5), 578–586. PMID: 23472705


Lequerica, A., Bushnik, T., Wright, J., Kolakowsky-Hayner, S. A., Hammond, F. M., Dijkers, M. P., & Cantor, J. (2012). Psychometric properties of the Multidimensional Assessment of Fatigue scale in traumatic brain injury: an NIDRR Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems study. The Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation27(6), E28-35. PMID: 23131968

Kolakowsky-Hayner, S. A., Wright, J., Shem, K., Medel, R., & Duong, T. (2012). An effective community-based mentoring program for return to work and school after brain and spinal cord injuryNeuroRehabilitation31(1), 63–73. PMID: 22523017

Kolakowsky-Hayner, S. A., Wright, J., & Bellon, K. (2012). A brief overview of the Patient Competency Rating Scale: updates and additions to the COMBI. The Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation27(1), 83–85. PMID: 22218203

Ketchum, J. M., Almaz Getachew, M., Krch, D., Kolakowsky-Hayner, S. A., Baños, J. H., Lequerica, A., Wright, J., Arango-Lasprilla, J. C. (2012). Characteristics associated with satisfaction with life 1 year post traumatic brain injury in a population of Hispanic individuals. NeuroRehabilitation, 30(1), 23–33. PMID: 22349839

Malec, J. F., Hammond, F. M., Giacino, J. T., Whyte, J., & Wright, J. (2012). Structured interview to improve the reliability and psychometric integrity of the Disability Rating Scale. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation93(9), 1603–1608. PMID: 22510680

Bellon, K., Wright, J., Jamison, L., & Kolakowsky-Hayner, S. (2012). Disability Rating Scale. The Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation27(6), 449–451.PMID: 23131965

Bushnik, T., Englander, J., Wright, J., & Kolakowsky-Hayner, S. A. (2012). Traumatic brain injury with and without late posttraumatic seizures: what are the impacts in the post-acute phase: a NIDRR Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems study. The Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation27(6), E36-44. PMID: 23131969

Kolakowsky-Hayner SA, Hammond F,  Wright J, Novack T, Englander J, Diaz-Arristia R, Dennison A, Sueno P. (2012). Ageing and traumatic brain injury: age, decline in function and level of assistance over the first 10 years post-injury. Brain Injury26(11), 1328–1337. PMID: 22897421

Jamison, L., Kolakowsky-Hayner, S. A., & Wright, J. (2012). Preliminary investigation of longitudinal sociodemographic, injury and psychosocial characteristics in a group of non-English speaking Latinos with brain injury. Brain Injury26(6), 805–813. PMID: 22583171


Lin, C. Y., Wright, J., Bushnik, T., & Shem, K. (2011). Traumatic spinal cord injuries in horseback riding: a 35-year review. The American Journal of Sports Medicine39(11), 2441–2446. PMID: 21856930

Shem, K., Medel, R., Wright, J., Kolakowsky-Hayner, S. A., & Duong, T. (2011). Return to work and school: a model mentoring program for youth and young adults with spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord49(4), 544–548.PMID: 21135861 


Cohn, J., Wright, J., McKenna, S., & Bushnik, T. (2010) Impact of Mean Arterial Blood Pressure During the First Seven Days Post Spinal Cord Injury. Topics in Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation, 15(3), 96–106. DOI: 10.1310/SCI1503-096


Englander, J., Bushnik, T., Wright, J. M., Jamison, L., & Duong, T. T. (2009). Mortality in Late Post-Traumatic Seizures. Journal of Neurotrauma26(9), 1471–1477. PMCID: PMC2864464


Bushnik, T., Englander, J., & Wright, J. (2008). Patterns of fatigue and its correlates over the first 2 years after traumatic brain injury. The Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation23(1), 25–32. PMID: 18219232

Bushnik, T., Englander, J., & Wright, J. (2008). The experience of fatigue in the first 2 years after moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury: a preliminary report. The Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation23(1), 17–24.  PMID: 18219231


Bushnik, T., Wright, J., & Burdsall, D. (2007) Personal Attendant Turnover: Association with Level of Injury, Burden of Care, and Psychosocial Outcome. Topics in Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation, 12(3), 66–76. DOI:10.1310/SCI1203-66

Bushnik, T., Englander, J., & Katznelson, L. (2007). Fatigue after TBI: association with neuroendocrine abnormalities. Brain Injury21(6), 559–566. PMID: 17577706


Duong, T. T., Englander, J., Wright, J., Cifu, D. X., Greenwald, B. D., & Brown, A. W. (2004). Relationship between strength, balance, and swallowing deficits and outcome after traumatic brain injury: a multicenter analysis. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation85(8), 1291–1297. PMID: 15295755

Patterson, R., Bushnik, T., Burdsall, D., & Wright, J.(2004) Considerations of Peer Support for Persons with High Tetraplegia. Topics in Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation, 10(3), 30–37. DOI: 10.1310/N1UW-85UR-PRT6-9MWY


Englander JS, Bushnik T, Duong TT, Cifu DX, Zafonte R, Wright J, Hughes R, Bergman W. (2003). Analyzing risk factors for late posttraumatic seizures: a prospective, multicenter investigation. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation84(3), 365–373. PMID: 12638104

Englander, J., Cifu, D. X., Wright, J. M., & Black, K. (2003). The association of early computed tomography scan findings and ambulation, self-care, and supervision needs at rehabilitation discharge and at 1 year after traumatic brain injury. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation84(2), 214–220. PMID: 12601652


Hall, K. M., Bushnik, T., Lakisic-Kazazic, B., Wright, J., & Cantagallo, A. (2001). Assessing traumatic brain injury outcome measures for long-term follow-up of community-based individualsArchives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation82(3), 367–374. PMID: 11245760


Wright, J., Bushnik, T., & O’hare, P. (2000). The center for outcome measurement in brain injury (COMBI): an internet resource you should know about. The Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 2000;15(1), 734–738. PMID: 10745188 


Hall, K. M., Knudsen, S. T., Wright, J., Charlifue, S. W., Graves, D. E., & Werner, P. (1999). Follow-up study of individuals with high tetraplegia (C1-C4) 14 to 24 years postinjury. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation80(11), 1507–1513.PMID: 10569448

Hall, K. M., Cohen, M. E., Wright, J., Call, M., & Werner, P. (1999). Characteristics of the Functional Independence Measure in traumatic spinal cord injury. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation80(11), 1471–1476.PMID: 10569443


Hall, K. M., Wallbom, A. S., & Englander, J. (1998). Premorbid history and traumatic brain injury. NeuroRehabilitation10(1), 3–12. PMID: 24525812


Englander, J. S., Cifu, D. X., Wright, J., Zafonte, R., Mann, N., Yablon, S., & Ivanhoe, C. (1996). The Impact of Acute Complications, Fractures, and Motor Deficits on Functional Outcome and Length of Stay After Traumatic Brain Injury: A Multicenter Analysis. The Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation11(5), 15. Article Link​​​​​​​​​​​​